We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. French administrators, soldiers, and missionaries were dedicated to bringing French civilization to the peoples of the colonies. He then dissolved parliament and called a general election (October 1877). The monarchy was restored, but instability followed and a second republic, second empire and third republic followed in the nineteenth century. A two-chamber parliament was created, along with a ministry under a prime minister (named “President of the Council”) who was nominally answerable to both the President of the Republic and parliament. The Third French Republicbegan in 1875 and lasted 65 years. The French Third Republic (French: La Troisième République, sometimes written as La IIIe République) governed France from 1870, when the Second French Empire collapsed, to 1940, when France's defeat by Nazi Germany in World War II led to the Vichy France government. The largest and most important were in North Africa and Vietnam. The largest and most important were in North Africa and Vietnam. Despite this turmoil, the midpoint of the Third Republic was known as the belle epoque in France, a golden time of beauty, innovation, and peace with its European neighbors. The French Third Republic Key Terms Napoleon III Second Empire Liberal Empire Franco-Prussian War The Paris The French Third Republic (French: La Troisième République, sometimes written as La IIIe République) was the system of government created in France from 1870, when the Second French Empire collapsed during the Franco-Prussian War, until 10 July 1940 after France's defeat by Nazi Germany in World War II led to the creation of the Vichy government in France. The Third Republic is officially established under Thiers after the French defeat by Prussia. France, following the great casualties of the Great War in 1914-1918, had suffered a significant decline in birth rates and as such by the time of the Second World War, its armies were severely undermanned. France’s longest lasting régime since before the 1789 revolution, the Third Republic was consigned to the history books, as unloved at the end as it had been when first created seventy years earlier. On May 16, 1877, with public opinion swinging heavily in favour of a republic, the President of the Republic, Patrice MacMahon, duc de Magenta, himself a monarchist, made one last desperate attempt to salvage the monarchical cause by dismissing the republic-minded prime minister and appointing a monarchist duke to office. In the aftermath of the war it was deemed necessary to hold elections to a national assembly which could authorize a formal, legitimate peace. Bismarck forced the French to elect government representatives by voting. Chancellor Bismarck of Prussia, who sought to bring his state to ascendancy in Germany, realized that if a German Empire was to be created, the French Empire, which would never tolerate a powerful neighbor at its borders, must fall. During this time, two parties dominated the government: the monarchists, who advocated the return of a monarchy, and the republicans, who wanted a government based on a constitution and elections. The Third Republicwas created following the Franco-Prussian Warof 1870. The Third Republic was proclaimed in France on 4 September 1870 after the defeat at Sedan, but it struggled to win universal acceptance. The Third Republic was established, but the possibility of a return to monarchy remained into the 1880s. Monarchists and right-wing Roman Catholics, many of whom were anti-semitic, and in some cases blaming a “Jewish plot” for the triumph of republicanism, immediately attacked Dreyfus and refused to consider the possibility that he was innocent. Compare & Book Cheapest, Fastest Bus and Flight routes in France and Europe: var script = document.createElement('script'); Although the royal numbering starts with Louis, he was not a king of … The new Republic Constitution is adopted in 1875, and the entire regime is Republican by 1879. The French Third Republic (French: La Troisième République, sometimes written as La IIIe République) was the system of government adopted in France from 1870, when the Second French … If you continue to use this site we will assume that you are happy with it. script.src = "//ferret.cdn-goeuro.com/ferret-affiliates.js?v=" + new Date().getTime(); Vichy was replaced by the French Third Kingdom. It struggled through the German invasion of World War One and the inter-war years. The Third Republic, in line with the imperialistic ethos of the day sweeping Europe, developed a worldwide network of colonies. The French Third Republic was the French state preceding and during World War II, until it's surrender to the forces of Nazi Germany on 25 June, 1940.. Prewar History. The economy was strong, with a … Although the elections returned a largely monarchist Assembly, a Republican, Jules Grévybecame its first President. The Third Republic A provisional government of national defense was set up in 1870 and took as its first task the continuation of the war against the invaders. French administrators, soldiers, and missionaries were dedicated to bringing French civilization to the peoples of the colonies. Though France was clearly republican, it was not in love with its Third Republic. Thoughout the 1870s, the issue of monarchy versus republic dominated public debate. Only a few crowns, their precious gems replaced by coloured glass, were kept. The new government continued resistance to the Germans who then laid siege to Paris. The French Revolution was soon eclipsed by the imperial ambitions of Napoleon Bonaparte (1769–1821), and the ensuing Napoleonic Wars saw France first militarily dominate Europe, then be defeated. Composed of the deputies representing Paris and formally headed by General Louis-Jules Trochu, the new government’s most forceful member was Léon Gambetta , hero of the radical republicans. #goog-gt-tt {display:none !important;} In February 1875, a series of parliamentary Acts established the organic or constitutional laws of the new republic. But its longevity showed that it was capable of weathering many a storm. .goog-text-highlight {background-color:transparent !important;box-shadow:none !important;} The Third Republic is still reeling from its defeat by the Prussians in the Franco-Prussian War. An essential introduction to the major political problems, debates and conflicts which are central to the history of the Third Republic in France, from the Franco-Prussian War of 1870-71 to the fall of France in June 1940. End of the Third Republic in France. The French built up an empire, especially in Africa and Indochina. The republic was established after the downfall of Napoleon III 's Second French Empire during the Franco-Prussian War, and it lasted until the German occupation of France during World War II. In 1871 Chambord had no wish to be a constitutional monarch but a semi-absolutist one like his grandfather Charles X. In the aftermath of the affair, when the truth finally did come out, the reputations of monarchists and conservative catholics, who had expressed unbridled anti-semitism were severely damaged. The Catholic Church became deeply involved. Gambetta proclaimed the deposition of the Empire at the Assembly while Favre proclaimed the Republic at the Town Hall. 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