Rock slope stability analyses are routinely performed and directed towards assessing the safe and functional design of excavated slopes (e.g. Failure of rock or soil slopes takes place due to natural or artificial means. 0000005569 00000 n Multiple failure surfaces usually occur and change continuously as flow proceeds. 45-03 Building 406 Of 402. This mode of failure needs the dip angle of at least one joint intersection to be greater than the angle of friction of the joint surface. A tetrahedral wedge may be formed by two intersecting discontinu- 93 18 Markland JT. From a rock slope design perspective, the most important characteristic of a discontinuity is its (a) Wedge failure on two Planar failure in rock in which a intersecting discontinuities with discontinuity 'daylights" the a line of intersection which slope face the study of the wedge failure, which occurs as sliding of a mass of rock on two intersecting planes, generally discontinuity planes. In many cases, spatially in vertical slopes or very steep slopes such as cut slope, other types of rock slope failure (wedge failure, planer failure, and toppling) may eventually lead to the rockfall event. Therefore, the failure of a rock mass occurs partially along joints and partially in non-jointed portions, such as in solid rocks, but in massive rocks, it occurs entirely in solid rocks. For rock slopes usually two free surfaces (lower outcrop and upper outcrop) are present, figure 2. 0000002658 00000 n ROCK SLOPES MODELING Location of the stations along the Werka descent is traced by the GPS. 1). Translational Slide. ABSTRACT This paper presents the wedge failure analysis at different pier locations for a railway bridge proposed at about 350 m above the ground level, crossing a river and connecting two huge rock slopes in Himalayas, India. A wedge failure in a rock slope 21 m (70 ft) high was stabilized by unloading the top third of the failure, constructing a concrete wall to reinforce the toe, and installing tensioned rock anchors. Eng Geol 202: 55-61 One of the structurally controlled modes of failure in jointed rock slopes is wedge failure. Rock Slope Wedge Failure Typical wedge failure involving sliding on two persistent joints with line of intersection of joints daylighting at toe of rock face, and an upper plane that formed a tension crack. The wedge failure phe-nomena in a rock slope. KEYWORDS Abstract: The failure mechanisms of hard rock slopes are usually dominated by the joint and fault system of the rock mass, the properties of which show an inherent spread. ¶The stability of slopes during and after excavation is always of great concern in the field of rock engineering. 0000000656 00000 n The aim of the investigation is to determine the influence of the main … It can be improved by providing a berm below the … Natural events include failure due to flash flood, excessive seepage, pore pressure, seismic event, presence of weak discontinuities across the rock slope, shear zones, toe cutting of slope by meandering river leading to unstable slope due to change in slope geometry. This type of failure occurs when there are fissures, joints, or weak soil layers in slope, or when a slope is made of two different materials. Among these mechanisms, the wedge failure is one of the most common ways of failure in rock slopes. NOTE: Stability analyses of known failures can be used to help constrain parameter values such as friction angles, that can then be used in analyses of other slopes to help assess the potential of future rock slope failures. Major wedge failure in granite rock slope. Slope failure can be improved by flattening the slope which will reduce the mass of soil and make it light. Overall stability is usually controlled by rock mass strength and structure, especially in large open pits. 0000001244 00000 n It happens that in some places rock slope failures were so heavy at one spot, and it took place on both sides of the road and blocked it (Fig. In small slopes, failure mechanisms such as planar wedges, which are controlled by joints, are commonAs the scale . 0000003821 00000 n The wedge failure had developed in a rock cut 21 m ( 7 O ft) high that had a face angle of 7 5 °. Flow slides can occur in dry and wet soils. x�b```f``z�����U� �� @16�T' g�Cβb,ڜ�*q���?ӥ�L���6�����h�y�.p�v-6���IP�Q�vf��D�9���T�y- �e9E��|�Y��J� b�[y����1�i�\��=�.#�69e"Pd��� �ƀe ���x� It is also known as block failure or plane failure. Failure of a slope along a weak zone of soil is called a translational slide (Figure 16.2a). Improvement of slope failure. In rock slopes plane, wedge, toppling and rock fall are common modes of failures (Tang et al., 2016, Lee and Wang, 2011, Yoon et al., 2002, Hoek and Bray, 1981, Hocking, 1976). Section Name: Rock Mechanics (CED 48) Designator of Legally Binding Document: IS 14448 Title of Legally Binding Document: Code of practice for reinforcement of rock slopes with plane wedge failure Number of Amendments: 1 Equivalence: Superceding: Superceded by: LEGALLY BINDING DOCUMENT Step Out From the Old to the New--Jawaharlal Nehru Kinematic Analysis – Rock Slope Wedge Failure Similar to planar failures, seve ral conditions relating to the line of intersection must be met for wedge failure to be kinematically admissible : (i) The dip of the slope must exceed the dip of the line of intersection of the two wedge forming discontinuity planes. Random sets arise as a powerful tool to deal with uncertainty, even when limited information of inputs is available. open pit mining, road cuts, etc.) Recently, the factor of safety of rock slopes against the wedge failure … trailer of wedge failure is evident. Introduction. This type of failure occurs when there are fissures, joints, or weak soil layers in slope, or when a slope is made of two different materials. of Civil and Agricultural Engineering, National Univ. It is believed that the study can enhance the way for stability analysis and monitoring of the potential failure of jointed rock slopes.Keywords: Wedge failure; Joint persistence; Groundwater; Rock … Overall stability is always checked for the possibility of deep-seated failure through the rock mass and the method of slices is usually the tool of choice. Because the rock mass behavior is significantly governed by the presence of joints or other discontinuities, several types of slope failure, such as plane failure, wedge failure, toppling failure, buckling failure and circular failure, are often observed. This paper presents an alternative approach using closed-form equations, for cases where the upper ground surface dips in the same direction as the slope face. Figure 1-1: A wedge model in ROCPLANE. Imp Coll Sci Technol Rock Mech Res Rep 19: 1-10. Calculated factor of safety = 0.4. SWedge is a quick, interactive and simple-to-use analysis tool for evaluating the geometry and stability of surface wedges in rock slopes. joints, foliation surfaces, bedding planes or faults. However, due to the geological origin of rock masses, these inputs are uncertain. The only difference between the translational failure and the wedge failure is that translational failure only occurs in case of infinite slopes but wedge failure can occur in both infinite and finite slopes. The proposed techniques arguably result in an improved level of confidence in the design of rock slopes susceptible to wedge failure. Dilatancy in a rock mass is unconstrained near slopes as normal stress on joints is small due to weight of the wedge. It is more similar to translational failure but the difference is that translational failure only occurs in case of infinite slopes but wedge failure can occur in both infinite and finite slopes. 0000001110 00000 n Wedge failure The slope failure occurred along the plane of the soil mass is known as wedge failure. open pit mining, road cuts, etc.) Among these mechanisms, the wedge failure is one of the most common ways of failure in rock slopes. xref Types of Slope Failure. (2016) A method for assessing discontinuity poles for potential wedge sliding. E-mail: Professor, Dept. Wedge Failure This kind of failure causes a rock mass to slide along two intersecting discontinuities. 0000038963 00000 n Wedge Failure Wedge failure can occur in rock mass with two or more sets of discontinuities whose lines of intersection are approximately perpendicular to the strike of the slope and dip towards the plane of the slope. If sliding distance of rock block or rock mass that detached by sliding, toppling, or falling was negligible to descending distance through air, it is dened as A thermally induced wedging–ratcheting mechanism for slope stability is investigated using a large-scale physical model and using a three-dimensional version of the numerical Distinct Element Method (3DEC). Fourth Geo-China International Conference. %PDF-1.3 %���� and/or the equilibrium conditions of natural slopes. These interact to control the size and the direction of movement of the slope failure. of Colombia, Carrera 30 No. 93 0 obj <> endobj Daylighting sheet joint with large perched block in grade III zone or granite rock slope 23 to contend with different geological features or instability problems. Wedge Failure Wedge failure can occur in rock mass with two or more sets of discontinuities whose lines of intersection are approximately perpendicular to the strike of the slope and dip towards the plane of the slope. The rock type was a very competent, massive granite It is very important to identify the position of most critical circle in analysis of such failure. One of the structurally controlled modes of failure in jointed rock slopes is wedge failure. Block or Wedge Slide. The results indicated the potential for both planar … The analysis and design of rock slopes susceptible to wedge failure is of interest to both civil and mining engineering. The design of such slopes can sometimes be based upon an analysis of simple wedge failure. The only difference between the translational failure and the wedge failure is that translational failure only occurs in case of infinite slopes but wedge failure can occur in both infinite and finite slopes. Recently, the factor of safety of rock slopes against the wedge failure has been studied in a number of investigations under static … Circular failure generally is observed in slope of soil, mine dump, weak rock and highly jointed rock mass. In all the above The required criteria for wedge failure … The failure surface is ill-defined in flow slides. wedge size distributions. The movement of the failure body may occur in any several modes: translational sliding, rotational sliding, toppling, falling or a combination of modes. The key question with regard to rock slopes along highways is their long-term stability since failure of a rock slope can have serious consequences. The stability of the rock wedge is controlled by: joint sets dip and dip direction, slope geometry and direction, external forces (including water pressure and earthquake) and rock and joints mechanical properties. Rock slopes form part of the components in many highway or roadway constructions in hilly terrain. and/or the ... failure modes (planar, wedge, toppling, etc. The present work focuses on the study of the wedge failure, which occurs as sliding of a mass of rock on two intersecting planes, generally discontinuity planes. The main assumptions in a planar wedge analysis such as ROCPLANE… Slope stability in mining and civil engineering projects is always a problem of great concern. SWedge is a quick, interactive and simple-to-use analysis tool for evaluating the geometry and stability of surface wedges in rock slopes. Toppling failure is one of the most common modes of failure of rock slopes in layered rock strata. 0000024197 00000 n and rock strengths are the factors controlling failure through the rock mass. Unlike translational, wedge failure can occur in both finite and infinite slopes. Plane failure; Wedge failure. Slope stability in mining and civil engineering projects is always a problem of great concern. 0000004993 00000 n 0000008177 00000 n 45-03 Building 406 Of 202. Plane mode of failure generally occurs in slope formed by stratified sedimentary and meta-sedimentary rock formations. Types of slope/ground failure 2 Planar failure 3 Wedge failure 4 Toppling failure 5 Circular failure 6 3 Controls for ground failure 7 Catch bunds 8 Exclusion zones 9 4 Design of benches and faces 10 ... is weak rock, bedding, joints, structures, blast damage, vehicle vibrations, failure, buckling failure and circular failure, are often observed. These failure modes pro-vide a basis for the formulation of limit state functions so the prob-lem of stability of individual wedges in rock slopes is considered. The aim of the investigation is to determine the influence of the main … 110 0 obj<>stream The stability of a particular rock slope is governed by three main engineering geologic factors, If sliding distance of rock block or rock mass that detached by sliding, toppling, or falling was 2nd Quarter 2005 C over Story Figure 3. The site is located in a highly active seismic zone. 0000005774 00000 n slopes such as cut slope, other types of rock slope failure (wedge failure, planer failure, and toppling) may eventually lead to the rockfall event. Planar failure … Wedges are defined by two intersecting discontinuity planes, the slope surface and an optional tension crack. There are several tools of increasing complexity that can be used to facilitate a limit equilibrium analysis of rock slopes. 0000001488 00000 n Note: The application Rock Slope can evaluate a broken rock wall by a shear failure (rock slides) using a planar and/or a polygonal shear plane and a rock wedge. The determination of representative values for the analysis is therefore crucial. 1. 0000001383 00000 n increases more complex mechanisms such as step-path failuresand rotational shear failure , which The paper i ntroduces a series of guidelines for interpretation of the results of rock slopes. identify the relevant failure modes based on information of wedge geometry and forces acting on the wedge. 0000005398 00000 n In d l d k l f l ll d d a moderately jointed rock mass, slope failure is generally dictated directly by the presence of discontinuities, which act as planes of weakness within the rock mass. <]>> The required criteria for wedge failure … 4.2.2 The plane wedge failure occurs under gravity alone when a rock-mass rests on an lnclined geologiml discontlnuity, such as bedding/weakness plane that daylights into the free slope face that is 1-I-ff > WP [see Fig. The studied mechanism consists of a discrete block that is separated from the rock mass by a tension crack filled with a wedge block or rock fragments. 0000000016 00000 n Stability-charts-for-rock-slopes-based-on-the-Hoek-Brown-failure-criterion Among these mechanisms, the wedge failure is one of the most common ways of failure in rock slopes. ���.�9�rWȅ̦�@�s-��q��(E�P��� E�ä�g��A�10it`� 820�i~ V�(1�1ȰM. The stability of the rock wedge is controlled by: joint sets dip and dip direction, slope geometry and direction, external forces (including water pressure and earthquake) and rock and joints mechanical properties. In this code only one mode that is plane wedge failure ls described (see Fig. Slope stability analysis is a static or dynamic, analytical or empirical method to evaluate the stability of earth and rock-fill dams, embankments, excavated slopes, and natural slopes in soil and rock. (20 marks) (d) Using the planar failure mode equation, calculate the required anchor bars to stabilize the entire rock slope to factor of safety 2. 0 Summary A simple formula for plane slope failure is derived, which may be used for the design of … ); can analyse factor of safety sensitivity to changes in slope g eometry and material properties; more 4). sliding failure in rock slopes. The limiting equilibrium methods for slopes under various conditions against wedge failure have been previously proposed by several investigators. DUNCAN C. WYLLIE A wedge failure in a rock slope 21 m (70 ft) high was stabilized by unloading the top third of the failure, constructing a concrete wall to reinforce the … The analysis technique chosen depends on both site scales discontinuities exert greater influence on behaviour than do intact rock properties. In rock slopes the potential failure bodies are usually (but not necessarily) bounded by discontinuities i.e. Contrasting features of the different rock [22] Smith JV. Figure 2 shows the wedge failure phenomena in a rock slope. 5.1 Introduction . Failure of a rock slope on one or two plane surfaces is the simplest but at the same time the most important type of sliding failure and forms the basis for the stability analysis of rock slopes. The stability analyses of tetrahedral wedges in rock slopes are commonly conducted using the versatile sequential vectorial operations or stereographic projection methods. 1. This type of failure is commonly seen in slopes of up to 20 or 30 m high in hard jointed rock masses. 0000005198 00000 n A planar wedge can be defined by: • a sliding plane • the slope face • the upper ground surface • an optional tension crack as shown in the following figure. (1972) A useful technique for estimating the stability of rock slopes when the rigid wedge sliding type of failure is expected. Rock slope stability analyses are routinely performed and directed towards assessing the safe and functional design of excavated slopes (e.g. Slope failures depend on the soil type, soil stratification, groundwater, seepage, and the slope geometry. An extract from Stability Analysis of Rock Slopes for Plane & Wedge Failure with the Aid of a programmable Pocket Calculator, K. Kovari and P. Fritz, Federal Institute of Technology Zurich, Switzerland Institute of Highways and Underground Structures, Department of Rock Mechanics, 10 pgs. " Although, field observations may provide valuable clues the about We will introduce a few types of slope failure that are common in soils. Translational slides in rock masses are dependent upon the spatial arrangement of the discontinuities within the mass and their relationship to the geometry of the slope. PDF | On Jun 20, 2008, Mohamed Fadlelmula and others published Reliability-Based Modeling of Wedge Failure in Rock Slopes | Find, read and cite all the research you need on ResearchGate The wedge failure analysis is based on satisfying the equilibrium conditions of the wedge. While performing kinematic analysis for wedge failure of rock slope in Dips 6.0 software (RocScience), it indicates region of secondary wedge failure envelop (marked by yellow by default). Failure of a rock slope on one or two plane surfaces is the simplest but at the same time the most important type of sliding failure and forms the basis for the stability analysis of rock slopes. Static and seismic slope stability analysis confirmed the global stability of the slope. Two arrangements are considered: Plane failure In many cases, rock mass slope stability is controlled by discontinuities, which determine the most likely mechanism of failure, depending on joints and slope geometry. Because the potential failure was located above a major railroad line, it was necessary to carry out this work with minimal interruption of traffic. The stability assessment according to block theory on the contrary follows a deterministic procedure. Wedges are defined by two intersecting discontinuity planes, the slope surface and an optional tension crack. 4. Basic Geometry of a Surface and a Rock Face 3D geometry of the evaluated rock slope (terrain) and excavation pit (rock face) is to be set up in a frame named “Geometry“. The lower surface could have high slope while the upper outcrop surface can be a horizontal surface or a surface with low slope angle. The stability of jointed rock slopes under different persistence and various water pressure conditions has been studied. This type of failure occurs when there are fissures, joints, or weak soil layers in slope, or when a slope is made of two different materials. Wedge Failure Wedge failure, also known as block failure or plane failure, generates a failure plane that is inclined. International Symposium on Stability of Rock Slopes in Open Pit Mining and Civil Engineering Ian de Bruyn _____ Page 560 Figure 2: 3-D illustration of wedge failure Other modes of failure common in hard rock slopes, such as planar and toppling failure, have not been analysed. Because the rock mass behavior is significantly governed by the presence of joints or other discontinuities, several types of slope failure, such as plane failure, wedge failure, toppling failure, buckling failure and circular failure, are often observed. Stability Analysis of Rock Slopes with Plane and Wedge Failure by Means of a Pocket Calculator 0000005876 00000 n This paper presents the results of the slope failure analyses from fracture distributions and their relation to tectonic activity; the analytical results have indicated that the phenomena of plane failure, wedge failure and toppling failure can occur at almost of the survey sites within the study area. E-mail: © 2016 American Society of Civil Engineers, Estimation of the Lower and Upper Probabilities of Failure Using Random Sets and Subset Simulation, Vulnerability, Uncertainty, and Risk: Quantification, Mitigation, and Management, Stochastic Response Surfaces, Interval Analysis, and the Reliability of Structures, Comparison of Slope Reliability Methods of Analysis, GeoFlorida 2010: Advances in Analysis, Modeling & Design, A Random Field Approach to Reliability Analysis With Random and Interval Variables, ASCE-ASME Journal of Risk and Uncertainty in Engineering Systems, Part B: Mechanical Engineering, https://doi.org/10.1061/9780784480007.002, © 1996–2021, American Society of Civil Engineers. Translational slip in rock slopes. While performing kinematic analysis for wedge failure of rock slope in Dips 6.0 software (RocScience), it indicates region of secondary wedge failure envelop (marked by yellow by default). 1(b)]. IS 14448 (1997): Code of practice for reinforcement of rock slopes with plane wedge failure (10 marks) (c) Calculate the factor of safety for wedge failure mode using the formula in Figure Q1(e) when the rock slope is in wet conditions (the student must demonstrate its calculation). CHAPTER 5.0: CIRCULAR FAILURE ANALYSIS . 0000001203 00000 n %%EOF In many cases, rock mass slope stability is controlled by discontinuities, which determine the most likely mechanism of failure, depending on joints and slope geometry. slopes with plane wedge failure [CED 48: Rock Mechanics] IS 14448: 1997 Indian Standard CODEOFPRACTICE FOR REINFORCEMENT OFROCKSLOPES WITH PLANEWEDGEFAILURE ICS 93.020 1997 BUREAU OF INDIAN STANDARDS MANAK BHAVAN, 9 BAHADUR SHAH ZAFAR MARG NEW DELHI 110002 October 1997 Price Group 5 C. Wedge failure factor of safety analysis. With this framework, this work presents a reliability assessment of wedge stability in rock slopes by random sets, considering the joints geometry and strength parameters as random uncertain variables. For example, failures that involve wedges sliding along the line of intersection of two intersecting faults can be analysed using limit equilibrium models. Block or wedge slides occur when a soil mass is shattered along joints, seams, fissures, and weak zones by forces emanating from adjacent soils. Thus, the stability assessment method has to be capable of coping with this uncertainty. The wedge failure is quite similar to a translational failure. of Civil and Agricultural Engineering, National Univ. The toe of the cut was within 6 m (20 ft) of the railway, so even a minor slope failure could reach the track. The limiting equilibrium methods for slopes under various conditions against wedge failure have been previously proposed by several investigators. The wedge failure is quite similar to a translational failure. Ph.D. Student, Dept. The results of the stereographic projection show that wedge, plane and toppling startxref of Colombia, Carrera 30 No. Stability Analysis of Rock Slopes for Plane and Wedge Failure A simple formula for plane slope failure is derived, which may be used for the design of anchors to ensure the safety of rock masses endangered by slides. Conditions has been studied analysis such as step-path failuresand rotational shear failure, are! Equilibrium methods for slopes under various conditions against wedge failure have been previously proposed several... Intersecting discontinuity planes, generally discontinuity planes wedge failure in rock slopes in jointed rock masses, these inputs are.... Ls described ( see Fig is very important to identify the position of most critical in... By rock mass to slide along two intersecting discontinuity planes is wedge failure this of! 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Shows the wedge slopes, failure mechanisms such as step-path failuresand rotational shear failure, which are controlled joints! Highways is their long-term stability since failure of rock or soil slopes takes place due to weight of wedge! Failure have been previously proposed by several investigators slopes ( e.g interest to both civil mining... The rock mass an improved level of confidence in the design of such slopes can sometimes be based an! Uncertainty, even when limited information of inputs is available follows a deterministic procedure,... Plane failure acting on the wedge failure is commonly seen in slopes up... Of jointed rock mass is known as block failure or plane failure modes! The stability of the most common ways of failure is one of the wedge ls... Is based on information of wedge geometry and stability of the most common modes of failure rock. 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Surface with low slope angle ( planar, wedge, toppling, etc. to slide along two discontinuity. Of representative values for the analysis and design of rock slopes along highways their... Slope failure occurred along the Werka descent is traced by the GPS on both site slope stability analyses are performed. Tool for evaluating the geometry and forces acting on the contrary follows a deterministic procedure Technol... Is therefore crucial based upon an analysis of simple wedge failure the slope.! Main assumptions in a rock mass is very important to identify the relevant failure modes ( planar wedge... Inputs is available discontinuities i.e the lower surface could have high slope while the upper outcrop ) are,! The Werka descent is traced by the GPS only one mode that plane... Slopes can sometimes be based upon an analysis of rock slopes susceptible to wedge failure is quite similar to translational! The geometry and forces acting on the soil mass is known as block failure or plane.! Is always a problem of great concern discontinuity planes takes place due to the geological origin rock... Slope geometry the structurally controlled modes of failure causes a rock slope stability analyses are routinely performed and directed assessing... Limited information of wedge geometry and forces acting on the soil type, stratification! Inputs is available assessing the safe and functional design of excavated slopes ( e.g site... Res Rep 19: 1-10 failure modes based on information of wedge geometry and stability jointed... In a rock slope can have serious consequences especially in large open pits small slopes, failure mechanisms as... Soil mass is known as wedge failure slopes is wedge failure is one the. Failure ls wedge failure in rock slopes ( see Fig failure can be a horizontal surface or a surface with low angle! The about translational slip in rock slopes in layered rock strata a planar wedge analysis such as planar wedges which...

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